Normal Anatomy of the Spine
The spine also called the back bone is designed to give us stability, smooth movement as well as providing a corridor of protection for the delicate spinal cord. It is made up of bony segments called vertebra and fibrous tissue called inter vertebral discs.
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The incidence of back pain has drastically increased. Approximately 90% of Americans experience back pain at different stages of their life. In America, the annual expenditure for the treatment of back pain is approximately $50 billion. Back pain is not a disease; rather it is a symptom due to an underlying pathology.
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The cervical spine comprises of the first 7 vertebrae. It supports the weight of the head and allows its smooth movement. Neck pain refers to pain or discomfort resulting from abnormalities or injuries to any of the structures in the neck including the muscles, ligaments, nerves, bones and vertebral joints.
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Spine trauma is damage to the spine caused from a sudden traumatic injury caused by an accidental fall or any other physical injury. Spinal injuries may occur while playing, performing normal activities, operating heavy machines, lifting heavy objects, driving automobiles, or when you suffer a fall.
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Back pain is an indication of stress fractures known as vertebral compression fractures. Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed to a smaller height.
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Spine injection is a nonsurgical treatment modality recommended for treatment of chronic back pain. Injection of certain medicinal agents relieves the pain by blocking the nerve signals between specific areas of the body and the brain. The treatment approach involves injections of local anesthetics, steroids, or narcotics into the affected soft tissues, joints, or nerve roots.
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Spinal Deformity Surgery
The Spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of our body. It helps to hold the body upright. It consists of several irregularly shaped bones, called vertebrae appearing in a straight line.
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Posterior Lumbar Decompression with Fusion
Microdiscectomy is a surgical procedure employed to relieve the pressure over the spinal cord and/or nerve roots, caused by a ruptured (herniated) intervertebral disc. A herniated disc, common in the lower back (lumbar spine) occurs when the inner gelatinous substance of the disc escapes through a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosis). This may compress the spinal cord or the surrounding nerves, resulting in pain, sensory changes, or weakness in the lower extremities.
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Spinal Cord Stimulator
Spinal cord stimulation is used for the management of chronic pain in arms and legs that has not responded to conventional modalities of treatment. Specific segments of the spinal cord are stimulated through electrical signals, generated by a spinal cord stimulator, which may be associated with a slight prickling or tingling sensation.
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Anterior Cervical Decompression with Fusion
Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is an operative procedure to relieve compression or pressure on nerve roots and/or the spinal cord due to a herniated disc or bone spur in the neck.
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Thoracic corpectomy is a procedure performed to relieve pressure on a nerve at the thoracic region (upper and middle back) by removing the source of the compression. It is indicated for conditions such as degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, bone spurs, tumor, fracture and infection leading to spinal compression, which cause pain, weakness and numbness in various parts of the body.
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Kyphoplasty is a surgical procedure employed in the management of a compression fracture in the spine secondary to osteoporosis. Vertebral compression fractures result in a reduction in the normal vertebral height. The compression of the vertebrae results in pain, restriction of mobility, height loss, and spinal deformity.
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SI Joint Fusion
The sacrum is a triangle shaped bone found in the base of the spine. The iliac bones are the two large bones that form the pelvis. The sacrum and the iliac bones or ilium are connected together by strong ligaments and the junction where these bones meet is referred to as the sacroiliac joint.
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Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Direct Lateral Interbody Fusion
Interlaminar Lumbar Instrumented Fusion
Minimal Access Surgical Technology Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Our spine is made up of small bony segments called vertebrae. These vertebrae are categorized into cervical or neck vertebrae, thoracic (upper back) and lumbar (lower back). Cushioning discs present between each vertebrae act as shock absorbers.
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Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection
Steroids are chemicals that are naturally present in our body. Synthetic steroids are generally used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as spinal disc injury and degenerative diseases among others.
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Laminectomy (Cervical) with Fusion
Posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion is a surgical procedure performed to decompress the spinal cord and nerve roots in the cervical region of the spine. Some of the spinal conditions that may compress the spinal cord and nerve roots include disc degeneration, bulging or herniated disc, spinal stenosis, and spondylosis.
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Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
A posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is a surgical technique that involves correction of the spinal problems at the base of the spine by placing bone graft between two vertebrae. Minimally invasive surgical techniques may be used to perform the procedure.
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Peripheral Nerve Surgery
The human nervous system comprises of the brain, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, and the peripheral nerves. The peripheral nerves are cord-like structures and are made up of nerve fiber bundles that transmit sensory information from the body parts to the spinal cord.
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Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
- Cauda equina syndrome
- Fracture of the thoracic and lumbar spine
- Herniated Disk
- IDET (Intradiscal Electrothermal Annuloplasty)
- Kids and Backpacks
- Kyphosis (Curvature of the Spine)
- Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents
- Spinal fusion
- Spinal Stenosis
- Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis
- The Spine