Foot & Ankle
Foot & Ankle Anatomy
The foot and ankle in the human body work together to provide balance, stability, movement, and propulsion.
Find out more about Foot & Ankle Anatomy with the following links
Achilles Tendon Rupture
Tendons are the soft tissues connecting muscles to the bones. The achilles tendon is the longest tendon in the body and is present behind the ankle, joining the calf muscles with the heel bone. Contraction of the calf muscles tightens the achilles tendon and pulls the heel, enabling foot and toe movements necessary for walking, running and jumping.
Find out more about Achilles Tendon Rupture with the following links
Ankle Sprains are a common injury that occurs from over stretching or tearing of the ligaments that support the ankle. The ankle is composed of bones forming a joint and ligaments are the elastic structures which are responsible for holding these bones in their proper place.
Find out more about Ankle Sprain with the following links
Common Toe Deformities
Anatomically the foot is divided into the forefoot, mid foot and hind foot. The Forefoot has 4 small toes called phalanges and 1 large toe called the hallux or big toe. Phalanges have 3 bones and 3 joints, while the big toe has 2 bones and 2 joints. The mid foot and hind foot have different structures, which are responsible for bearing body weight and performing activities such as walking and running.
Find out more about Common Toe Deformities with the following links
The plantar fascia is a long, thin ligament present along the bottom of the foot that creates the arch of the foot. It extends from the heel bone, and then splits and fans out to attach itself to the toes.
Find out more about Plantar Fasciitis with the following links
A bunion, also called a hallux valgus, is an enlargement of bone or soft tissues around the joint at the base of the big toe that results in the formation of a bump. The bone that joins the big toe with the first metatarsal bone thickens and enlarges, tightening the tendons, which in turn causes the base of the big toe to angle out resulting in a painful bony deformity.
Find out more about Bunion Surgery with the following links
Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions.
Find out more about Ankle Arthroscopy with the following links
The foot is made up of 26 bones and 33 joints. Three joints at the back of the foot, namely, subtalar, talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints allow the side to side movement of the foot.
Find out more about Triple Arthrodesis with the following links
Ankle Joint Replacement
The ankle joint connects the leg with the foot and provides free movement to the foot. It is formed by connecting the bones of the lower leg, tibia and fibula, with the talus, or ankle bone.
Find out more about Ankle joint replacement with the following links
Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopedic websites American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society.
- Achilles Tendon
- Adult (Acquired) Flatfoot
- Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
- Ankle Arthroscopy
- Ankle Fractures
- Ankle Ligament Reconstruction
- Deformity Correction
- Diabetic Foot
- Flexible flatfoot in children
- Foot Drop
- Foot Pain
- Fracture of the Talus
- Fractures of the Heel
- Hammer toe
- Heel Pain
- Orthotic Devices
- Osteochondral lesion of the talus
- Peroneal Tendon Disorders
- Pes Cavus
- Plantar fasciitis
- Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction
- Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
- Sprained Ankle
- Stiff Big Toe (Hallux rigidus)
- Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle
- Tendon Transfer
- Toe and Forefoot Fractures